Rose Özüm’s BA thesis on Penelope and Black Widow (Utrecht University, 2022)
This study explores how modern-day heroine Black Widow compares to the Classical heroine Penelope, using close-reading and Voyant Tools to analyse Homer’s Odyssey and MCU films Iron Man 2 (2010), The Avengers (2012), and Black Widow (2021). The text mining focuses primarily on the terms heroism, heroes, heroic, heroine, hero, and glory. Results indicate that Penelope’s heroic self in the Odyssey is represented through her loyal and faithful character and her intelligence. Black Widow’s heroic self is primarily represented through her physical attributes, fighting skills and intellect.